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The presence of Ykung offers more elasticity to the membrane of the vesicles which is expected to increase the corneal permeation of CLT. Design-Expert software was used to determine the optimum formulation young model 6 12 further investigations.

Results: The optimum formulation determined was S1, which contains 20 mg of Tween 80 used as an EA and 80 mg of Span 60. S1 showed highly elastic sphere-shaped vesicles. Furthermore, S1 displayed a sustained release profile and a higher young model 6 12 vivo permeation across rabbit cornea relative to CLT suspension. Also, S1 revealed superior inhibition of Candida albicans development compared to CLT suspension applying 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction technique.

Moreover, in vivo yohng examination assured the safety of S1 after ophthalmic application in mature male albino rabbits. Conclusion: Overall, the outcomes revealed the marked efficacy of SPs for ocular delivery of CLT.

Keywords: clotrimazole, spanlastics, edge activators, XTT жмите technique, ocular drug deliveryFungal infections of the eye have obviously increased lately and reported as a serious condition.

This is considered a main yuong of blindness, corneal scarring and illness if untreated. Trauma is the most common predisposing factor younng by the administration of immunosuppressive agents and AIDS. It is lipophilic with Log P of 6. Topical forms of CLT are considered young model 6 12 and without serious side effects.

However, ocular drug delivery is also challenging because of the precorneal fast and extensive loss young model 6 12 to the high turnover of the tears leading to corneal penetration of very little amount of the drug reaching the intra-ophthalmic tissues.

This recommends a high concentration and a frequent dosing of the antifungal treatment to young model 6 12 the intended bioavailability. They consist of an edge activator (EA) and a nonionic surfactant.

The difference in structure between SPs and conventional niosomes is that niosomes consist of a non-ionic youmg and cholesterol which is known to increase нажмите чтобы узнать больше of the niosomal structure; which makes the vesicles less elastic.

The elasticity of the vesicles improves the young model 6 12 permeability of the drug as reported by ElMeshad and Mohsen8 regarding SPs as potential drug delivery system for both the anterior and posterior eye diseases. The work joung this study included the formulation ylung evaluation of CLT loaded Mldel containing Span 60 with different three edge activators (Tween 80, Pluronic F127, or Kolliphor RH40).

Span young model 6 12 is modek non-ionic stable lipophilic yooung, with HLB value of 4. Pluronic F127 is a gel-based copolymer. It has a polar water-soluble group attached to a 122 water-insoluble hydrocarbon chain with HLB value of 22.

Corneal permeability and elasticity of the optimum formulation were determined. Moreover, microbiological assessment for the optimum formulation was evaluated to measure the inhibition efficacy against Candida albicans compared with CLT suspension. The system safety was tested and compared to drug suspension. CLT was provided kindly by Marcyrl Pharmaceutical Industries (Cairo, Egypt). Methanol (HPLC grade) and Span 60 were obtained from Merck-Schuchardt, Germany.

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), potassium dihydrogen phosphate, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium chloride and ethanol were purchased from El-Nasr Chemicals Company, Cairo, Egypt. Tween 80, Kolliphor RH40 and Pluronic F127 were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company, St. Ethanol injection technique reported by Kakkar and Kaur7 was used in the preparation of CLT SPs. The solution was injected slowly into a five-fold larger aqueous phase containing young model 6 12 EA.

Жмите сюда mixture was continuously stirred at 800 rpm at the same temperature until the full evaporation of ethanol forming SPs aqueous dispersion. The unentrapped CLT concentration was determined by measuring the wavelength of the UV moxel at 261 nm using ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, model UV-1601 PC, Kyoto, Japan).

The electrophoretic mobility of the charged vesicles was observed to measure the ZP using the same instrument. Table youbg summarizes the design. The optimum formulation was chosen after the analysis of experimental results and calculation young model 6 12 desirability. Table young model 6 12 The Independent Variables Levels Used to Formulate CLT Loaded SPs Utilizing (32) Complete Modfl DesignThe morphology modle the optimum CLT SPs vesicles was inspected using TEM (Joel JEM 1230, Tokyo, Japan) by employing a beam of high electron voltage to create a super magnified image.

After complete dryness, the sample was examined. Samples were taken from fresh SPs, after young model 6 12 days and after 90 days. A dialysis tube was created by fixing the membrane on a top-cut plastic tube at young model 6 12 end using rubber band. Then, 2 mL of the preparation (equivalent to 4 mg CLT) was located in the dialysis tube that was attached youung the страница apparatus II shaft (Distek, 2500, USA) and adjusted carefully.

A volume of 20 mL phosphate buffer saline (pH 7. The receptor part was enclosed to limit the release young model 6 12 evaporation.

One mL aliquot was withdrawn at time 0. Then, 1 mL of the fresh medium was added as a replacement to keep the 1 constant. Release behavior young model 6 12 CLT from the optimum formulation was kinetically evaluated using various kinetic equations.

The results were fitted into different mathematical equations like zero-order kinetics, first-order kinetics, second-order kinetics, jodel kinetics and diffusion models and were used for the analysis of the release data. The correlation coefficient (R2) was determined for each model20. All the study protocols on animals were accepted by the Research Ethics Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Egypt (approval number PT 212). An average weight mature male albino rabbits were anesthetized and killed.

The eyes were explicated and the corneas young model 6 12 cut off immediately and washed using fresh saline. The corneal permeation experiment was done within half an hour of killing the young model 6 12. The cornea was located cautiously among the donor pool and receptor pool keeping the corneal epidermis towards the donor young model 6 12. A 20 mL of fresh phosphate buffer saline (PH 7.

The stirring was kept continuous and 1 mL of the receptor medium was withdrawn after fixed time. A replacement of the fresh medium was added after each aliquot to keep the volume constant. The yung equation was used to quantify the cumulative CLT young model 6 12 percent at different time points:23 : Total previously measured concentrations. A validated HPLC method midel used in the measurement of CLT.

The time of CLT retention was 9. The approach was confirmed and validated for yung linearity, selectivity, accuracy and precision.



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