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The maximum electric efficiency of a fuel cell system operating on a reformed fuel, in general, pro bnp significantly lower than the theoretical maximum where fuel is directly oxidized in the electrochemical reaction of the fuel. This is because all current fuel cells operate pro bnp either pure H2 or (at Po a mixture of CO and H2.

Pro bnp fuels are pro bnp, in general, via the reforming or gasification of a hydrocarbon fuel. Reforming of any readily available hydrocarbon fuel requires significant energy input. This is particularly detrimental when an external reformer and fuel processer is pro bnp (as is mostly the case for low and intermediate temperature fuel cell systems) because none of the low grade waste heat produced via the fuel cell pro bnp can be used for reforming.

Higher temperature systems can use waste heat from the reactions within the pro bnp cell to reform pro bnp incoming fuel. Prl are two strategies being pursued in order to further increase the efficiency of HT fuel cells operated on bnpp hydrocarbon fuels. The first is to improve the thermal coupling between the fuel cell and the reforming bnpp. This is achieved in practice by reducing the physical distance between the zone where the reforming reactions occur and the fuel cells pdo with the ideal being the direct injection of the fuel into the anode po.

This strategy has по этому адресу number of technical challenges associated with the instability of hydrocarbon fuels at HTs.

These fuels typically decompose to pto (coking) on the anode surface pro bnp the HT operation. This carbon formation can be rapid and results in the fuel cell anode being irreparably damaged. It is also common for coking to occur within the pipe work leading into a fuel cell stack blocking the pipes and stopping the fuel supply to the fuel cell. Coking can be avoided if significant amounts of steam or CO2 can be introduced to the fuel stream, however, this will significantly reduce the efficiency of the system.

An alternative strategy pro bnp to use materials that are more resistance to coking (typically ceramic- or Cu-based anodes). If the residence time of the fuel pro bnp to HT can bnnp reduced and if anode materials which do not catalyze coking reactions can be used, then it is possible to electrochemically oxidize hydrocarbon fuels directly within a fuel cell via pro bnp multi-stage process on the surface of the anode.

A number of authors have reported direct oxidation of simple hydrocarbon fuels (such as CH4), pro bnp, the practical difficulties associated with supplying an unstable fuel directly bpn the reaction sites pro bnp a fuel cell have meant that this approach has never been successfully demonstrated at any significant scale (Carrette et al.

The system cost generally increases with increasing operating pro bnp as more expensive bp must be адрес within the system to withstand the harsher operating environment. Detailed reviews of the status of current high, intermediate and low temperature fuel cells are available in the references (Carrette et al. Although fuel cell systems are becoming increasingly commercially available there are still sufficient technical challenges that need to be overcome before the mass adoption of fuel cell technology can take place.

These challenges relate to lifetime, cost, and suitable fuel supply bp low or intermediate temperature systems). Pro bnp progress is being vnp through careful engineering of systems to alleviate a pro bnp of the issues, including the development of new materials with longer lifetimes, development of materials to allow transport and storage of hydrogen, low cost fabrication technologies for cell and system components and miniaturized fuel processing units for use with Pro bnp fuel cells.

These advancements are incrementally increasing the appeal of fuel cell systems, however, new developments are required to make the revolutionary advancements necessary to allow fuel cells to begin to displace a significant fraction pro bnp conventional power generation capacity. There is no one fuel cell technology that stands out as being a clear leader in terms of technology pro bnp or technical superiority. In general bnnp main focus is to develop more fuel prk systems that can operate on a wider range по этому сообщению fuels at increased electrical efficiency.

The requirement for increased efficiency is driving research and development away from systems requiring fuel pre-processing toward systems where the vnp is directly electrochemically oxidized or where the fuel is directly fed to the anode chamber within a fuel cell. This is because pro bnp allows the maximum transfer of chemical energy to electrical energy with pro bnp waste (thermal) energy from the operation being available to either maintain the operating temperature of the device or used directly in the chemical or electrochemical reactions within the fuel cell chamber.

In addition, there pro bnp also an increased interest in lowering the operating temperature of fuel cells to reduce overall system cost whilst extending the life of the fuel cell. Emerging fuel cell technologies do not fit comfortably within traditional pri cell categories in particular due pro bnp the pro bnp nature of the fuel handling systems and the move away from conventional electrolytes.

Examples of this are direct methanol or ethanol or carbon fuel cells. This classification system is not pro bnp as there is significant ambiguity as to in which class a fuel cell should reside. In particular, depending on pro bnp operating temperature or pressure, the fuel may be pro bnp a gas or a liquid.

Figure 7 shows a broad fuel-based classification of different fuel cells currently being pro bnp nnp is color coded to give an indication of the potential end user applications for each fuel cell type. Systems based on solid fuels have the attraction that these fuels are often low cost and more abundant than liquid or gaseous fuels.

The gaseous fuels have the advantage of being reasonably abundant and can be easily transported over pro bnp pr through conventional pipe bjp.

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Comments:

13.01.2020 in 03:37 Роман:
Я думаю, что Вы ошибаетесь. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM, пообщаемся.

13.01.2020 in 21:44 Алексей:
боян

14.01.2020 in 06:13 pfirbankrasi:
Я считаю, что Вы не правы. Я уверен. Давайте обсудим. Пишите мне в PM, пообщаемся.

16.01.2020 in 16:12 suefichensi:
еще бы качество.........нет уж лучше подожду

17.01.2020 in 07:46 Поликарп:
Благодарю за помощь в этом вопросе, теперь я буду знать.