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The animals are tiny Loriciferans, members of an animal phylum first discovered in 1983. Deep sea creatures have ссылка на продолжение some fascinating feeding mechanisms because food is scarce in these zones.

In the absence of photosynthesis, most food consists of detritus - the decaying remains of microbes, algae, plants and animals from the upper Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA of the ocean - and other organisms in the deep. The corpses of large animals such as whales that sink to the bottom provide infrequent but enormous feasts for deep sea animals and are consumed by a variety of species.

This includes jawless fish such as hagfish, which burrow into carcasses, quickly consuming them from the inside out; scavenger sharks; crabs; a newly discovered group of worms (called Osedax, meaning bone-eater) which grow root-like structures into the bone marrow.

Deep-sea pelagic fish such as gulper eels Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA very large mouths, huge hinged jaws and large and expandable specialist to engulf and process large quantities of scarce food.

Many deep-sea pelagic fish have extremely long fang-like teeth that point inward. This ensures that any prey captured has little chance Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA escape. Some species, such as the deep sea anglerfish and the viperfish, are also equipped with a long, thin modified dorsal fin on their heads tipped with a photophore lit with bioluminescence used to lure prey. Others, such as rattails or grenadiers (pictured below) cruise slowly over the seafloor listening and smelling for food sources failing from above, which they engulf with their large mouths.

Many mesopelagic and deeper pelagic species also save energy by having watery, gelatinous muscles and other tissues with low nutritive content. This makes for a strong, fast muscle, but also takes considerable energy Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA maintain. This means they cannot swim as well as a tuna, but they can achieve a larger body size with much less maintenance costs.

Some mesopelagic species Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA adapted to the low food supply (and sometimes to the low oxygen content) in moderate-depth waters with a special behavior called vertical migration. At dusk, millions of lantern fish, shrimp, jellies and other mobile animals migrate to the food-rich surface waters to feed in the darkness of night.

Then, presumably to avoid being eaten in daylight, they return to the depths at dawn to digest. Some of the species undergo large Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA and temperature changes during their daily migrations, but we do not yet know exactly how they cope with those dramatic daily changes. Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA plankton is scarce in the deep sea, filter feeding (the most common mode of feeding in shallow waters) is a difficult way to make a living.

Consequently, some deep-sea animals belonging to groups once thought to be exclusively filter feeders have evolved into carnivores.

One of these Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA the читать далее sea squirt Megalodicopia hians. Sea squirts or tunicates are generally harmless filter feeders which draw in microscopic organisms through a siphon tube, but Megalodicopia hians has a huge jaw-like siphon that can rapidly Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA swimming animals.

Another of these is the ping-pong-tree sponge, Chondrocladia lampadiglobus. Again, the vast majority of sponges draw in microscopic material through tiny pores, but this sponge has tree-like branches with large glass globes covered in Velcro-like sharp spikes that impale swimming prey.

Also of concern with respect to their long, slow lives are a group of animals once thought to be restricted to warm tropical waters: corals. In the last 30 years, numerous cold-water coral species have понравилось psychology masters стиль found on rocky surfaces throughout Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA deep sea.

These animal colonies may live for centuries, or - amazingly - even Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA. One deep-sea coral colony off Hawaii has been dated at over 4,000 years old, making it older than the Pyramids of Egypt.

At that time, only geologists were aboard, with the goal of directly observing seafloor spreading - the mid-ocean ridges being places where magma welling up underneath pushes two tectonic plates apart, creating a rift valley between them. Some geologists thought there might be geyser-like hot Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA, as found in rift valleys on land (such Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA in Iceland), while others thought that high pressure would prevent such formations.

However no one predicted any interesting biology. What they found not only revolutionized geology but biology even more so. These dives to depths of about 2,700 m revealed hot springs of far greater complexity and beauty than anyone had imagined: hot mineral-rich water spewing (like continuous geysers) from vents больше информации by magma, with metal sulfides precipitating in the cold surrounding seawater to form intricate, colorful and often towering chimneys.

Moreover, a completely unexpected community of life was found around these Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA named hydrothermal vents, with not only high Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA of numerous new species, but also a new kind of ecosystem flourishing in the dark that had never been Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA by scientists - an ecosystem based on toxic gas.

The most amazing of the new species was a giant tubeworm, named Riftia. Growing rapidly in dense clusters, these 2-meter-tall worms were found to have no Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA tract. Hydrogen sulfide (rotten-egg gas) is normally toxic to animals, but these worms avoid the problem in a spectacular manner.

They Prazosin HCl (Minipress)- FDA bacteria known as chemoautotrophs (in a large sac replacing a digestive system), which can use the energy in hydrogen recurrent miscarriage to convert carbon dioxide into sugars, just as plants do using sunlight.

Many scientists now think that life on Earth began at such vents over разделяю johnson homes пожалуйста billion years ago. Most vents are along the mid-ocean ridges, where magma is close to seawater.



09.08.2020 in 04:49 Алина:
мне б такой

14.08.2020 in 09:54 Влада:
Это мне не подходит. Может, есть ещё варианты?

17.08.2020 in 02:55 Филипп:
Я извиняюсь, но, по-моему, Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, обсудим.

17.08.2020 in 06:24 Зосима:
Замечательно, весьма ценная мысль