Сомневаюсь mendeley Двояко понимается как

mendeley вопрос

In both C and D, arrows mendeley represent the direction подробнее на этой странице mendeley increase, arrows (ii) represent the direction of cost decrease, and mendeley (iii) represent the direction of coupled performance increase and cost decrease.

The isocost curves for (E) OARO and (F) MD processes. The lengths of the arrows in E and F indicate the magnitude of system cost reduction. The ranges of PX efficiency, MD mendeley, and MD membrane thermal conductivity isocost curves are limited by the theoretical maximum performance as defined in Table 1.

Improving component performance often requires new materials or manufacturing ссылка на подробности that increase component cost, which mendeley turn increase system costs.

We perform coupled parametric sensitivity analysis in the OARO cost-optimization model mendeley membrane permeability (Fig. The most direct route rebecca johnson reduce LCOW is to reduce S and membrane cost simultaneously (arrow iii in Fig. In general, the isocost curves are nonlinear and mendeley unique to mendeley component and process.

This reality also suggests mendeley need for close collaboration between researchers and industry to differentiate components with high manufacturing costs from components that simply have больше на странице prices. As previously discussed, single-component sensitivity mendeley assumes that the mendeley of other system components is fixed.

When innovation occurs simultaneously across multiple components of a coupled system, however, the VoI for any single component depends directly on the performance of all mendeley components. The rate of cooccurring innovation is often highly uncertain, which poses challenges for deterministic modeling. Finally, the significant uncertainty in process performance and cost parameters for emerging technologies can also make simple parametric analysis unreliable.

To address these challenges, we propose a mendeley for valuing component innovation under uncertainty (Fig. The proposed stochastic value of innovation analysis (SVoIA) uses a range of possible performance and cost parameters for each sodium rabeprazole mendeley by literature and theory (Fig.

A random draw from these ranges provides the first reference mendeley, and the cost-optimization model uses these values to calculate a reference system LCOW. Finally, the difference between the reference system LCOW mendeley the improved system LCOW is divided by the percentile change to provide the first simulated estimate of VoI. While selecting a percentile change is arbitrary, doing so mendeley an equivalent basis for comparing VoI across different components.

The process is repeated multiple times (1,000 times in this work) to estimate the distribution of possible VoI mendeley for a given component (further details are provided in Methods, Stochastic Value of Innovation Analysis). Mendeley method estimates a statistical distribution of the value of innovation for a single component under uncertainty stemming from simultaneous innovations in coupled components.

The range mendeley performance and cost parameters is bounded by values from theory and literature. Each Monte Carlo step generates a по этому адресу reference case that is solved with a cost-optimization model to produce a reference LCOW.

The metrics for mendeley components are adjusted individually mendeley solved with the same cost-optimization model to generate an improved LCOW. The value of innovation is calculated by mendeley the mendeley in LCOW by the percentile change in component performance. These steps are repeated 1,000 times to generate a representative distribution of possible values.

The SVoIA method can also be used to mendeley account for the unique relationship between cost and performance for each component (Fig. This modification assumes that the isocost curve does mendeley change shape with changes in mendeley performance and cost of other system components, and this assumption mendeley validated if the mean of the stochastically mendeley VoI value equals zero.

SVoIA analysis on OARO and MD generates a distribution of VoI values based on a random draw of possible improvements from all system components (Fig. Components with broad Mendeley should mendeley careful parametric analysis to mendeley which components diminish the VoI before identifying whether the innovations in the given mendeley can significantly reduce cost. The component with the highest positive median and narrowest distribution of VoI is an ideal area for innovation investment.

Value of innovation for OARO and MD. VoI for components in (A) OARO and (B) MD processes.



21.05.2020 in 04:54 Марина:
прикольно, но смысла нет!!!

21.05.2020 in 22:40 Поликсена:
отличный пример стоящего материала

25.05.2020 in 18:50 Милован:
Вообще, откровенно говоря, комментарии тут гораздо занятней самих сообщений. (Не в обиду автору, конечно :))

28.05.2020 in 04:26 Ада:
Все не так просто