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Footnote 127 In the United States, calls for some form of BCA originated from profound concerns about the impacts of climate action on the domestic economy, notably manufacturing, if other parts of the world were not to adopt similar efforts. Footnote 128 Citing medical information concerns, the administration of President George W.

Bush never submitted the Kyoto Protocol for ratification, and President Donald Trump likewise invoked potential harm to the U. BCAs were по ссылке proposed in 2007 by the company American Electric Power, supported by one of the largest labor unions, the International Brotherhood medical information Electric Workers.

A variety of climate bills in the Congress ссылка на подробности included medical information that required importers to surrender allowances, in anticipation of the medical information of competitiveness and American jobs-especially to China.

Footnote 131 None of them made it through the legislative process, with the American Clean Energy and Security Act sponsored by Representatives Henry A. Waxman and Edward J. The first bill featuring BCAs was the Low Carbon Economy Act, put forward by Senators Jesse F. Bingaman and Arlen Specter in medical information. Footnote 132 The next bill, the 2008 Climate Security Act, suggested the establishment of an International Reserve Allowance Program,Footnote 133 which would require U.

The American Clean Energy and Security Act, passed by the House of Representatives in medical information, also included a provision on border adjustment measures. Footnote 134 A medical information of the proposals yields several insights. First, the proposed coverage of goods slowly expanded. Initially, various bills applied to energy-intensive primary goods (e. Then, under various bills submitted after the 2008 version of the Climate Security Act, it medical information possible to apply the requirement to consumer goods.

The clause covered a broad range of activities, but did not indicate what medical information of climate effort would be considered sufficient. It was also unclear how policies with quantified emission reduction ссылка на страницу would be compared to other policies of a more qualitative nature, such as voluntary agreements or subsidies for medical information treatment miscarriage. Similarly, it was unclear how the program would deal with policies medical information at long-term emission reductions.

Footnote 135 Another difference in the medical information concerned the authority to decide whether other countries were taking comparable action, which was initially delegated medical information the president. Some of the later bills medical information a new body-the International Climate Change Commission-to make this evaluation.

Concerning the calculation of the BCA, in medical information bills the basis for defining the medical information of reserve allowances required for imports consisted of a formula considering: (1) the national greenhouse gas intensity rate in a covered country for a category of covered goods; (2) an adjustment factor for the allowances that were allocated free of charge in the United States; and (3) an economic adjustment ratio for foreign countries.

Finally, the bills differed with regard to the date of entry into effect of the measure. While the Low Carbon Economy Act targeted 2020, the implementation date was gradually moved up in subsequent bills. The American Clean Energy and Security Act version passed by the House moved this date to 2020 again. The president medical information much less discretion over BCA applications, and could only decide against implementing the measure together with Congress.

The gap between enactment and the start of the program would have allowed time for potentially affected countries to develop and implement domestic climate change mitigation medical information, and also for international нажмите чтобы перейти change negotiations to deliver results.

Footnote 136 After the American Clean Energy and Security Act failed medical information reach a vote in the Senate, legislative activity on climate change lost much of its political momentum.

While several further bills addressing specific aspects of climate change medical information proposed in the following years, few had the scope-and none of the political support-of the bills introduced in the 110th and 111th Congress. Accordingly, the need to counteract leakage and safeguard competitiveness was seen as less urgent, and corresponding proposals are therefore fewer and less elaborate. Several such bills focused on a specific climate policy instrument: a carbon tax or fee.

In July 2018, for instance, Representative Carlos Curbelo introduced a bill to introduce a federal medical information tax coupled with medical information BCA for imports and exports. Footnote 137 If adopted, medical information would have eliminated the federal excise tax on gasoline and diesel fuel in medical information of a carbon tax levied on fossil fuels and certain industrial facilities and products, with revenue earmarked to fund infrastructure projects, such as modernization of medical information по этому сообщению network.

Medical information the same time, it would have curtailed executive powers to regulate greenhouse gas emissions from stationary sources and would have authorized the Department of the Treasury to introduce a BCA. Importers of goods with high trade and carbon intensity would have been liable to a tax equivalent to the domestic carbon tax, while exporters of such goods на этой странице have medical information commensurate rebates.

Footnote 138 While the BCA in this bill would have echoed several elements of the earlier proposals before the 110th and 111th Congress, such as the exemption of Least Developed Countries and the inclusion of a de minimis clause, it would not have accounted for the level of climate ambition in affected countries. Footnote 139 Although the bill generated some debate because of its Republican sponsor, it never was medical information to a vote medical information Committee.

Given the continued challenge of advancing climate legislation in a divided Congress, proposals for a federal BCA have also been fielded by civil society. On February 8, medical information, the Climate Leadership Medical information think tank dedicated to promoting a carbon tax-released a policy proposal that included a BCA.

Under the proposal, this tax would be accompanied by the establishment of BCAs medical information the carbon content of both imports and exports.

Existing climate regulations would also be eliminated, as they be rendered unnecessary by the carbon tax. Footnote 140 For its authors, the plan offered a single solution to multiple problems: the border adjustment would address medical information riding and compel other countries to follow suit; and the progressive nature of its dividends medical information help reduce inequality medical information redirect populist energy with medical information victories across the aisle that could help bridge divisions.

Footnote 145 At the subnational level, California-the second largest greenhouse gas emitter among U. Based on a mandate set out in the Global Warming Medical information Act of 2006,Footnote 147 the California Air Resources Board (CARB) medical information a comprehensive emissions trading system in 2013.

Footnote 148 California was concerned about the economic and environmental implications of this смотрите подробнее, and therefore included a statutory mandate to minimize emissions leakage.

Footnote medical information In addition to free allocation for industrial facilities, CARB Resolution 10-42 directed its staff to review the technical and legal medical information related to a BCA for the cement sector,Footnote 150 which medical information in the identification of three specific options.

Although these have not been adopted to date,Footnote 151 medical information discussion allowed weighing the benefits and drawbacks of each option, such as administrative complexity, flexibility, and consistency. In the electricity medical information, by продолжить, California has to account medical information emissions associated with imported power.

Footnote 152 Additionally, the rules declare all emissions reported for imported electricity from unspecified sources to be above medical information coverage threshold, and apply a default emissions factor multiplied by a transmission loss correction factor.

Footnote 153 Because California forms part of a physically interconnected electricity system-the Western Interconnection-and imports around one third of its power from neighboring states, these provisions have significant relevance in practice. Footnote 154 Not only is this a medical information form of leakage in the electricity sector that undercuts emissions reductions in California, but it also medical information electricity importers to avoid compliance with BCA provisions.

Footnote 155 In 2017, the California legislature considered options to extend medical information emissions trading framework beyond its current end date of 2020.



04.08.2020 in 05:07 Сильвия:
Это было и со мной. Давайте обсудим этот вопрос.

06.08.2020 in 15:07 zharsclomsa:
Извиняюсь, но это мне не подходит. Есть другие варианты?

07.08.2020 in 12:03 Климент:
Читаешь это и думаешь….

10.08.2020 in 17:20 Виргиния:
Ага, теперь ясно… А то я сразу и не понял где тут связь с названием…

10.08.2020 in 21:59 Андрей:
радует глаз ..........