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Field, Andrew Balmford, Michael A. Cowtal Study sites The study was conducted at two former gravel extraction sites: Ouse Fen Perfectionist the Reserve (otherwise known as the Hanson-RSPB wetland project; 52.

Map of Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton costal margin main habitat types present at each site. Ouse Fen Nature Reserve The site of Cosatl Fen Nature Reserve has been used by Hanson UK for gravel extraction since 1994. Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve Fen Drayton Lakes Nature Reserve is a 311 ha site situated approximately 3 km southwest of Ouse Fen. Ecosystem service assessment and scenario development Discussions with key costal margin RSPB reserve managers, the Environment Agency, regulators, and business partners-were used to identify the key ecosystem costzl provided by each costal margin in their current state and under plausible alternative land use or costal margin scenarios.

To address Objective 1, ecosystem service delivery at Ouse Fen was compared between the following post-extraction land use scenarios: wetland nature conservation, as per the current state and extent of the site agriculture, as per the original restoration proposal To address Objective 2, ecosystem service delivery at Fen Drayton was compared under the following land use scenarios: current state of the site as a whole, with a mixture of invention and non-intervention compartments; intervention scenario, focusing costal margin marrgin species-focused restoration and management actions across the entire site; non-intervention scenario, costal margin profiling of the post-extraction basins and allowing natural vegetation colonisation across the entire site.

The key ecosystem services http://datcanakliyat.xyz/roche-d-dimer/igg-416-roche.php at Ouse Fen читать considered by stakeholders to be global climate change mitigation (through carbon storage and sequestration) maegin nature-based recreation (under both scenarios), crop production costal margin the agricultural scenario), and grazing (under the current nature reserve http://datcanakliyat.xyz/dizinil/coronavirus-treatment.php. Habitat areas for Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios.

Livestock Grazing The RSPB does not currently impose a fee on graziers in return for grazing rights on grassland areas at Ouse Fen. Crop production Due to sensitivity issues of disclosing financial information of individual farm такие coconut meat отличный, income figures from crop production immediately around Ouse Fen were unavailable.

Fishing No fishing occurs at Ouse Fen under the current or agriculture scenarios. Flood-risk mitigation Though situated in the historical floodplain of the river Great Ouse, Ouse Fen is separated from the river by high flood banks (breached only costal margin in the last century) and instead receives water from de-watering activities in active extraction areas of the site. Restoration and costal margin costs One-off restoration and annual management costs were calculated for the different states at each site based on current costal margin figures for restoration costs per unit area of habitat (N.

Ecosystem services provided by Ouse Fen under the current (nature conservation) and alternative (agricultural) land use scenarios. Ecosystem services provided by Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios.

Mean C storage by costal margin type costal margin Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton under current and alternative land-use scenarios. Outputs and costs associated with the agricultural margib scenario at Ouse Fen assuming a regionally-characteristic ratio of 63:37 cereals to general cropping.

Nature-based recreation A total of 23 questionnaires were completed at Ouse Fen (see S1 Dataset for full dataset). Descriptive statistics for visitors to Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. One-off restoration costs (grey bars) and annual management costs (white bars) for a) Costal margin Fen under по этой ссылке current and agriculture scenarios, and b) Fen Drayton under the current management regime and alternative intervention and non-intervention scenarios.

DiscussionThis study compared the capacity of two common mineral site after-uses-nature conservation and agriculture-to provide ecosystem services, and matgin costal margin how the focus of conservation activities mediates the delivery of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem services provided by nature conservation compared with agriculture Our results demonstrate that the costal margin conservation management strategy employed at Ouse Fen provides more than double the mean C storage than would occur under an alternative agricultural land use. Ecosystem services provided by species-focused restoration compared to recreation or mixed-use restoration The second objective of the study was to understand how the degree of species-focused intervention in nature conservation activities affects ecosystem service provision.

Values costal margin limitations of a rapid ecosystem services assessment This study provided a rapid site-scale assessment of ecosystem services and so has limitations compared to a more comprehensive appraisal. ConclusionOuse Fen and Fen Drayton illustrate some of the different restoration strategies that are possible at post-mineral extraction sites, and the provision of ecosystem services associated with them.

Recreational survey data from questionnaires at Ouse Fen and Fen Drayton. Interview questions for visitors at Ouse Fen. Interview questions costal margin visitors costal margin Fen Drayton. Author ContributionsConceived and designed the experiments: LJ KSHP AB RBB. Bide T, Brown T, Hobbs S, Idoine N. United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 2013. Nature Costal margin Minerals-How mineral site restoration can benefit costal margin and wildlife: the report.

Ecological effects costal margin mineral mxrgin in the United Kingdom and their significance to costal margin conservation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

Limestone quarries maryin refuges costal margin European xerophilous butterflies. Santoul F, Figuerola J, Green AJ. Importance of gravel pits for the conservation of waterbirds in the Garonne river floodplain (southwest France). Introducing an ecosystem services approach to quarry restoration. Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University; 2013. Balmford A, Bruner A, Cooper P, Costanza R, Farber S, Green RE, et al.

Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas. Rey Benayas JM, Newton AC, Diaz A, Costal margin JM.

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